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Saturday, October 22, 2011

Genre of Text

Hi, have you ever heard about genre of text? If you’re students of senior high school you mostly know about it. Here I would like to inform you about the detail of genre of text in English. So, check it out.
Genre of Text

Based on Developing English Competences Grade I, II, and Interlanguage Grade III, we found about 11 genre (kind) of text that are taught in the senior high school.  Here is the explanation:

1.      Recount Text
Social Function       : to retell events for the purpose of informing or entertaining.
Generic Structure
·         Orientation       :  provides the setting and introduce the participants
·         Events              :  tell what happened, in what sequence.
·         Re-orientation  :  optional- closure of events.
Characteristics       : focus on specific participants, circumstances time and place, use past tense, and focus on temporal sequence.
2.      Narrative Text
Social Function       : to amuse, entertain, and to deal with actual or vicarious experience in different ways.
Generic Structure   
·         Orientation       :  sets the scene and introduces the participants.
·         Complication   :  a crisis arises.
·         Resolution        :  the crisis is resolved, for better or for worse.
·         Re-orientation  :  optional.
Characteristics       : uses past tense, focus on specific participants, use temporal conjunction, and temporal circumstances. 
3.      Procedure Text
Social Function       : to describe how something is accomplished through a sequence of actions or steps.
Generic Structure
·         Goal
·         Materials          :  not required for all procedural texts.
·         Steps                :  a series of steps oriented to achieving the goal.
Characteristic         :  use simple presents tense, mainly imperative. 

4.      Descriptive Text
Social Function       :  to describe particular person, place, or thing.
Generic Structure   
·         Identification   :  identifies the phenomenon to be described.
·         Description      :  describes parts, qualities, characters.
Characteristics       : focus on specific participants and use simple present tense.
5.      News Item Text
Social Function       : to inform readers, listeners, or viewers about events of the day which are considered news worthy or important.
Generic Structure
·         Newsworthy events
Recounts the events in summary form.
·         Background events
Elaborate what happened; to whom; in what circumstances.
·         Sources
Comments, by participants, witnesses to and authorities experts on the events.

6.      Report Text
Definition                :
Social Function       : to describe the way things are, with reference to  a range of natural, man-made, and social phenomena in our environment.
Generic Structure
·         General classification
Introducing the thing that will be talked about.
·         Description
Elaborating and reporting on the subject in detail.
Characteristics       :  use simple present tense.
7.      Analytical Exposition Text
Definition                : 
Social Function       : to persuade the reader or listener that something is the case.
Generic Structure
·         Thesis              
o   Position     :  introduces a topic and indicates the writer position.
o   Preview     :  outlines the main arguments to be presented.
·         Arguments
o   Points        :  restates main arguments outlined in the preview.
o   Elaboration   :           develops and support each point/arguments.
·         Conclusion
Restates the writer position.
Characteristics       :  uses simple present.
8.      Spoof Text
Definition                :
Social Function       : to share with others a real story of which the ending is funny to amuse the audience or readers.           
Generic Structure
Orientation              : the opening of the story which sets the scene.
Events                     : the details of events in the story.
Twist                       : the funny or unpredictable ending of the story.
Characteristics         : uses simple past tense.
9.      Hortatory Exposition
Social Function       : to persuade the reader or listener that something should or should not be the case.
Generic Structure
Thesis                      : announcements of issue concern.
Arguments               : reason for concern, leading to recommendation.
Recommendation    : statement of what ought to or ought not to happen.
Characteristics         : uses simple presents tense.
10.  Discussion Text     
Social Function       : to present (at least) many different aspects of an issue.
Generic Structure   
Thesis                      : introduces the statements and previews of issue.
Arguments “For”     : support the thesis.
Arguments “Against”   :                not support the thesis.
Conclusion              : states the recommendation of the issue.
Characteristics         : uses simple present tense.

11.  Review Text
Social Function       :  to criticize an art work, event for a public audience.
Generic structure    
·         Orientation      
Places the works in its general and particular context often by comparing it with others of its kind or through an analogue with a non-art object or event.
·         Interpretative Recounts (optional)
Summaries the story and / or provide an account of how the reviewed rendition of the work came into being.
·         Evaluation
Evaluates the work and/or it performance or production.
·         Evaluative Summation
Sums up the reviewer’s opinion of the art as a whole.
·         Persuasive language used in judgment.
·         Relating verbs, action verbs, saying verbs, thinking verbs, noun groups describing characters.
·         Present tense.

Source of References
Ahmad Dody, dkk. 2008. Developing English Competences Grade X&XI. Jakarta: Pusat Perbukuan Departemen Pendidikan Nasional.

Joko Priyana, dkk. 2008. Interlanguage Grade XII. Jakarta: Pusat Perbukuan  Departemen Pendidikan Nasional.

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