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Wednesday, October 12, 2011

Contoh Makalah Introduction to literature (Setting in a Novel)


A.    Definition of Setting
According Glossary of Literature, setting is the time, place, physical details, and circumstances in which a situation occurs. Settings include the background, atmosphere or environment in which characters live and move, and usually include physical characteristics of the surroundings. Settings enable the reader to better envision how a story unfolds by relating necessary physical details of a piece of literature. A setting may be simple or elaborate, used to create ambiance, lend credibility or realism, emphasize or accentuate, organize, or even distract the reader. Settings have a way of drawing the reader into a piece of literature while facilitating understanding of the characters and their actions. Understanding the setting is useful because it enables us to see how an author captures the attention of the reader by painting a mental picture using words.[1]
Then, at, it is explained that setting includes the time, location, and everything in which a story takes place, and initiates the main backdrop and mood for a story. Setting has been referred to as story world or milieu to include a context (especially society) beyond the immediate surroundings of the story. [2]Elements of setting may include culture, historical period, geography, and hour. Along with plot, character, theme, and style, setting is considered one of the fundamental components of fiction.
Furthermore, a brief definition we can get at Online Writing Lab, that setting is the place or location of the action. The setting provides the historical and cultural context for characters.[3]
Based on three definitions above, we can conclude that setting is the place, time, and circumstances where the story takes place. It is useful to give a clear description to the reader about where and when the character in the story. It may include culture, historical, period, geography, and hour.

B.     Setting in The Novel Girls’ Guide To Hunting and Fishing
In this novel, the author, Melisa Bank, has an interesting way to write the story. The alternation of setting move is very fast. Each chapter has different theme of story. Thus, I would like to divide setting of this story based on its chapters:
Chapter 1
Advanced Beginner
In this chapter, the main character, Jane, is still teenager, 14 years old. On this chapter, the main setting is in Jane’s cottage, on New Jersey shore and its beach.

1.      They drove from Manhattan down to our cottage in New Jersey shore. When his little convertible, his pet, pulled into the driveway, she was behind the wheel. My mother and I were watching from the kitchen window. (p.5)
2.      Except for bedrooms and screened-in porch, our house was just one big all-purpose room, and Henry was giving her a jokey tour of it: “This is the living room,” he said, gesturing to the sofa; he paused, gestured to it again and said, “This is the den.” (p.6)
3.      Dinner: talk of great books everyone had read or planned to expect me (p.15)
4.      At beach, we left our sandals and sneakers on the path with the others shoes, and spread our towel on the sand, facing the ocean. Hendry stood a minute looking out, and then bounded into water. ….
I looked around us at people on the beach. A group of women of my mother age wore bikinis and gold bracelets and were already deeply tanned. The really thin ones looked mean. A small community had set up chairs near our towel. A man was pouring something clear out of a thermos into outstretched plastic glasses, while a woman passed a baggie of lime wedges. (P.19)
I sat up on my elbows, watching Hendry in the ocean. The water was just getting warm, and he was the only one for a while. He waited for his wave in a standstill crawl position, his body facing us, but his head turned back to were the waves formed. Then he swam hard, caught the wave, and rode it all the way into shore. (p.20)
On the above sentences, we can find how the author draws Jane’s house and the beach and its circumstances where the story takes places. Although the readers have not ever gone the places but the can see them based on the author description. In addition, we can feel how the dinner atmosphere through author simple words (no.3).

5. He didn’t answer right away. Then he told me about the gala Southampton. The house was enormous, he said, and right on the beach. There were at least a hundred guests- maybe two hundred – and a band had been hired for the party.
He said that Julia had probably told him  to wear a dark suit, but he’d forgotten or thought it wasn’t important. They’d had to borrow one for him. He imitated her father saying. “All Blaire has to do is get on horn.”
Hendry seemed to dislike her father especially.”
Hendry described the borrowed suit in detail- the sleeves were too short  and it was baggy – but everyone told him how wonderful he looked. Other men were wearing tuxedos.
Everyone was drinking a lot. He said, and he drank too. Julia kept introducing him to people, but Hendry said he couldn’t remember their names, and they didn’t seem to talk to him any way. He’d make jokes – about why he transferred to many collages, for example – but nobody laughed.
There were a lot of people Julia hadn’t seen in along time. They all wanted to talk to her. And dance. So, off she went.
He went to the bar and stood there a while. But he was in the way of people getting their drinks. He moved to the edge of the crowd and just watched. Suddenly I seemed, he was drunk, in a suit that didn’t fit, at a party where he didn’t know anyone, and he was standing alone. (p.41)
This an example of elaborate setting to give a details description of the gala at Jane house. It also a clear description about how Hendry’s feeling on that party.
Chapter 2
The Floating House
In this chapter, the story is about Jane and Jamie who stay at Jamie ex-girlfriend, Bella in St. Croix. Mostly the story takes place on Bella’s house, some are on the shop, tennis court, and on a sailboat.
1.      We land in St. Croix and walk off the plane into the airport. I see a man holding up a sign that say Jane and James, and I’m thinking, They sent a car for us? But Jamie laughs and says, “There they are?” (p.50)
2.      When we pull up to the driveway, she jumps out of the jeep to unlatch the gate. First, though, she motions sweepingly to the sign on the wall, THE FLOATING HOUSE.  Jamie squeezes my hand. I begin a joke about having known only generic houses, but the jeep lunches forward into the walled courtyard.
The house is cool and long, white ceramic tiled floors out to the veranda, and from every window you can see the blue-green Caribbean Sea. (p.51)
3.      In Christiansted, Yves leads me through the court yards of old fortresses and along the docks.
He takes me into a huge duty-free soft that sells perfume, china, crystal, and watches. (p.55)
That night, we all drive back to Christiansted.

4.      We play tennis a nearby hotel, and before anyone says anything, I insist on being Yves’s partner. We are strong players so it doesn’t much matter who plays with whom, but I watch his face when I say it. He looks at me and I smile, Hiya. (p.59)
5.      It’s hotter than it’s been. It’s less like the end of spring and more like the middle of summer. (p.62)
6.      In  the afternoon when I woke up, the Belladrama appears to be over. The three of them are on the veranda having breakfast. The sun is out and sparkling away on the water, and there’s fruit salad and juice. (p.66)
7.       He motors us out to a huge beautiful sailboat, and the sight and then sight of it puts the wind back in my own sails. I see tha boat’s name, The True Love, and  think of the one from Philadelphia Story. (p.69)
Sentences no. 1,2,3,4,7 shows us setting of the place, no. 5 shows setting of circumstances, and no. 6 setting of the time and the circumstances.
Chapter 3
My Old Man
In this chapter, the story is about Jane relationship with Archie Knox, an old man. The story takes place at Jane’s aunt house and Archie’s house in Manhattan, a baths, a French restaurant, Jane’s house, and Jane’s aunt funeral.
1.      “Look up when you walk,” my great-aunt Rita told me, the summer I stayed with her in Manhattan. (p.77)
2.      I scanned the crow, thinking in placards: These Are the People Who Attend the Theater in Manhattan. (p.79)
3.      After my freshman year in collage, I spent a long weekend with my aunt on Martha’s Vineyard. Late on a hazy afternoon, she took me to clay baths. We walk  down the beach, and we neared the baths, I saw that everyone was naked, they clay-coated bodies varying shades of gray, depending on dryness. I looked over at my aunt. She said, “A parade of statues.” (P. 81).

4.      I met Archie Knox at a French restaurant for supper before the theater…..
5.      This was an early spring weekend in the suburbs, and the three of us sat outside on the screened-in porch. My mother was in the background that afternoon, doing the brunch dishes and offering more coffee, wedding the garden and filling the bird feeder. It was warm but not hazy the way it can be in spring, the sky was blue with hefty clouds. The dark pink and red azaleas were just beginning the bloom. (p. 129)
6.      A lot of people came to the funeral and almost as many to the cemetery.
Chapter 4
The Best Possible Light
            In this chapter, the story is telling about Nina and his son Barney. Jane is on Nina house, attending her party. The entire story takes place at Nina house.
1.      Out of nowhere, my son, Barney, shows up. I’m in the kitchen, making mint iced tea and singing aloud and singing along with opera, when I hear the downstairs buzzer. Through the intercom, Barney calls out, imitating himself at eight, “Open up! Mom! It’s me!” I buzz him in and go to the landing. He’s already rounding the second floor, and in the dim light I see his jeans and T-shirt.

2.      He sets up the dining room, and turn on the radio. Gladys Knight’s version of “Heard It through the Grapevine” is on. We’re all dancing and singing.

Chapter 5
The Worst Thing A Suburban Girls Could Imagine
This chapter tells about Jane problems, started from his father whose leukemia and some problem that she has with Archie. The story takes place at Archie house, Jane’s house, Rita’s apartment, and a restaurant, Tortilla Flats, Archie’s farmhouse, flea market, Mimi’s office, a hospital, and Jane’s father funeral.
1.      I sat in a big Archie’s big leather armchair. He stretched out in the sofa. When I started to say something, he said, "No talking in the library,” and reminded me that I was there to work. (p.141)
2.      That weekend looked just like the ones I’d spent one home before finding out about my father. But I knew now what was the underneath. We had lunch out on the patio. We talked and read. Puttered. We ate dinner by candlelight. We acted like we might go to the movies and never went.
3.      When I woke up on Sunday, my mother had been up for hours, gardening. Over breakfast (p.148)
4.      When I got to Archie’s that evening, he said, “How’d it go?”
5.      I was living at my aunt Rita’s old apartment in the Village. Legally, I wasn’t supposed to be there so I hadn’t really moved in. There wasn’t room, anyway; no one had moved my aunt’s stuff out. It seemed less defined by my presence than her absence, and the little terrace was the only place in it I liked to be. (p.135)
6.      Archie answered the door, wearing a black cashmere sweater……..
7.      Behind him I saw peonies on the dining room table. (p. 136)
8.      We took our coffee into the living room. He stood at the stereo and asked if I had any requests.
9.      I arrived at the restaurant, saying, “sorry, sorry, sorry.”
Archie didn’t seem annoyed. “I was just beginning to worry,” he said. “Let’s get you something to eat.” (p.153)
10.  Later, though, in bed, he said, “Are you asleep?”
“I was,” I said, our standard joke.

11.  I meet Sophie at Tortilla Flats, where my ex-boyfriend Jamie worked as bartender…. (p.153)   
12.  Archie and I went up to his farmhouse late Friday night. I was sleepy, but I stayed awake to talk to him while drove. He didn’t ask me to play the old car games- Capitals, President, Twenty Questions, or Ghost – which collectively revealed my lack of knowledge o every subject. (p. 154)
13.  We wake up to chilly rain. We ate breakfast at the diner and then wandered around town.
14.  He had dinner on the porch, steamed lobster and mussels, white corn on the cob, tomatoes, and fresh bread.
Rebecca was back by then, washing up for dinner. (p.163)
15.  I woke up early. I found my mother crying in the kitchen. She always been a big weeper; there were balled up Kleenexes in the pockets of every one of her bathrobes in the coats.  In the past, I’d teased her about it. We all had. But now I thought of the times she must have been crying about my father and couldn’t tell anyone about it. I put my arms around her. (p.164)
16.  On the train to New York, I tried to remember the last time I’d heard him say, “I’m taking my Antabuse!” I realized that I’d never actually seen him swallow a pill.  I went to my aunt’s apartment instead of his. It was musty, I opened all the windows. Then I went into my aunts study and called him. (p.167)
17.  Mimi called me into her office. “You did a wonderful job on the novel,” she said. (p.170)
18.  I asked my mother when Hendry was coming. We were in the car, on our way to the hospital. (P.172)
Then, the setting mostly in a hospital since Jane’s father illness get worse.
My father had a plastic oxygen tubes in his nose. He didn’t smile when he saw me. “Hello, love,” he said.
I bent down to kiss his forehead.
He was in a VIP room suite, which had wall-to-wall carpeting, a mini refrigerator, and a velvety wallpaper. “ This is a brothel,” I said. (p.172)
19.  My mother, Hendry, and I got into the black limousine that had come to the take us to the funeral…..(p.186)
20.  He invited Mickey to spend Labor Day weekend with us in the Berkshires, maybe hoping to brief the spell of my grief. (p.187)
21.  On the way went home, we stopped at the farm stand for vegetable s and and fruit. He made dinner and we had a picnic underneath the apple three in back. He read Washington Square to me by flashlight. (p.191)
22.  We drove back to New York in silence.(p.191)
23.  I asked Mimi to have lunch with me. At the restaurant, she told me I needed protein and suggested I order the liver or steak with a good cabernet.
When the waiter came to the table, I told him that I’d have the salmon.

24.  The following Monday, I went to the temp place. I aced my typing test. I soared through spelling and grammar. I was sent to benefits department of a bank, where I typed number into a computer and answered the phone. (p.197)

25.  The next weekend we went up to the farmhouse. He did whatever I wanted to and nothing I didn’t. He didn’t ask me to play Scrabble or Honeymoon Bridge or Hearts. He didn’t suggest we invite the professor over for dinner.
In the late afternoon, he took me to the flea market. He ate hot dogs ate the concession stand and read the newspaper while I hunted for treasures. When I showed him what I’d brought – cardboard farm animal with wooden stands- he said, “How did we live without this before?” (p.198)

26.  Saturday night, we lay outside on the grass. The moon lit up the meadow and the stars were  out. It must’ve been their brightness that made me remember the radio jingle from when I was growing up, and I sang to Archie:
“Everything’s brighter at Ashbourne Mall.”
He got the turn right away, and sang, “Ashbourne Mall.”
After a while, he said, “ Honey.”
“Yes, honey,” I said.
He put a little box in my hand. I looked at it. It was that robin-egg blue from Tiffany. I opened the blue box, and there was a velvet  one inside, and I opened that. I looked at the ring. It was platinum with one diamond. It was just the ring I would’ve wanted, if I’d wanted a ring from him. (p. 198)
Chapter 7
The Girls Guide to Hunting and Fishing
In this chapter, the main character, Jane start to find the reason why she never get successful to have relationship with a man The story takes place in store, wedding party, Sophie’s house, and Robert house.
1.      At the entrance to the store, we separate and plan to meet in an hour. I’m an expert shopper, discerning fabric content by touch, identifying couture at a glance. Here at Loehmann’s, on Broadway at 237th Street. (p.228)
2.      The wedding is held at a restored mansion on the Hudson. I come up here sometimes on Sundays. If there isn’t  a wedding going on, you can pay admission to tour the house and grounds, but I pay my $4.50 just to sit in an Adirondack chair and read the newspaper and look at the river. (p.230)
3.      Inside, Sophie says she’s bummed a cigarette and we go out to the patio. (p.235)
4.      My brother calls inviting me to benefit for a theater company Friday night.
(p. 242)
5.      The day after Sophie gets back from Italy, we meet for coffee at a café in the Village. (p.260)

Setting is the place, time, and circumstances where the story takes place. In this novel we can get, the author describe the time, places, and circumstances about the story. The author move from one setting to another fast, so that it can give an interesting way to the reader to enjoy story in this novel.

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